Initializer List

Let us understand the concept of initializer list in C++ with the help of an example. Consider a class viz. person, which has data members like age, name and employee dataExample #include <iostream>#include <string>using namespace std;class employeeData { unsigned int m_salary;public: employeeData() { cout << “employeeData default C’tor” << endl; m_salary = 0; } employeeData(unsigned int salary) { cout << “employeeData parameterized C’tor” << endl; m_salary = salary; } employeeData(const employeeData& data) { cout << “employeeData Copy C’tor” << endl; m_salary = data. m_salary; } employeeData& operator=(const employeeData& data) {…

const data members

If you want to make a data member of class to be constant data member, then you can use the const keyword before its data member declaration. The const data members must be initialized by constructor in initialization List otherwise compiler throw an error. Once initialized, const data member value cannot be changed. Example:When we create a class of stack, we want to limit the number of entries for stack object. For that, we can use one const data member which can be used for validating the stack full scenario.…

this pointer

Let us understand with an example how and where this pointer is used. class employee { unsigned int m_age; unsigned int m_salary; employee(unsigned int age, unsigned int salary) { m_age = age; // same as this->m_age = age; m_salary = salary; //same as this->m_salary = salary }void update(unsigned int age, unsigned int salary) { m_age = age; // same as this->m_age = age; m_salary = salary; //same as this->m_salary = salary }}; int main() { employee emp(40, 45000); emp.update(40, 50000); return 0; } In the above example, employee object viz.…

Assignment Operator

Let us understand assignment operator with the help of an example of employeeData class. #include <iostream>#include <string>using namespace std;class employeeData { unsigned int m_salary; char* m_name;public: ~ employeeData() { if (m_name) { delete []m_name; } } employeeData() { cout << “employeeData default C’tor” << endl; m_salary = 0; m_name = NULL; } employeeData(unsigned int salary, char* name) { cout << “employeeData parameterized C’tor” << endl; m_salary = salary; unsigned int len = strlen(name); m_name = new char[len +1]; strncpy(m_name, name, len); m_name[len+1] = ‘\0’; } //Overloaded Assignment Operator employeeData& operator=(const…

Copy Constructor

Prototype of copy constructor <classname>(const <classname>& ); Let say class name is foo. Then the copy constructor prototype will look like: foo(const foo& ); Scenarios:Below are the scenarios where copy constructor is called. 1) When an object is passed by value as function argument. 2) When function returns object by value. 3) When new object is created from an already existing/created object. Need:Compiler provides default copy constructor for each class. However, there are scenarios where we need to define the copy constructor explicitly. Consider a class below: #include <iostream>using namespace…

Virtual Function

Function is a virtual function when the virtual keyword is added in the beginning of function declaration.virtual void display();virtual keyword is required in declaration. In function definition, virtual keyword is not required. When you want to override(redefine) the function in derived class, then virtual function is required. This means virtual function works only when inheritance is involved. Let us understand with the help of an example. class shape {public: virtual void draw() {} virtual void func() {}};class rectangle: public shape {public: void draw() { cout << “Draw rectangle” << endl;…

Dynamic Cast

This is one of the type casting provided by C++. Let us understand with the help of an example. #include <iostream>using namespace std;#define MAX_LENGTH 50class person { unsigned int m_age; char m_name[MAX_LENGTH];public: person(unsigned int age, char* name) { m_age = age;    int len = strlen(name); strncpy(m_name, name, len); m_name[len+1] = ‘\0’; } virtual ~person(){}};class student : public person { unsigned int m_rollNumber;public: student(unsigned int age, char* name, unsigned int rollNumber):person(age, name),m_rollNumber(rollNumber) { } ~student(){}};class teacher: public person {unsigned int m_salary;public: teacher(unsigned int age, char* name, unsigned int salary):person(age, name),m_salary(salary) {…

DHCP

DHPC stands for Dynamic Host configuration Protocol.For any device to be part of network, it must have an IP in order to communicate with other devices in the network.Here device or Host mean the same. IP AllocationIP can be assign to a device in two ways:1. Statically2. Dynamically Statically assigning an IP means manually configuring the device. However, this can be very hectic if we have to do for multiple devices. To overcome this tedious work, DHCP come in to picture. DHCP is a protocol that helps in configuring/assigning the…

Conversions

In this, we will learn about the conversions. First two conversions viz. Binary to Decimal and Decimal to Binary are explained in detail and remaining two conversions viz. Decimal to Hexadecimal and Hexadecimal to Decimal are almost same as first two but with small difference. In all the conversions, we will take one number and convert in to another. Binary to DecimalBinary number is represented with 0 and 1. Binary Number: 0110 0011 Rightmost bit of binary number is LSB i.e. Least Significant bit and leftmost bit is MSB (Most…

IPv4 Address

IPv4 Address consist of 4 numbers separated by dot(.). Each number ranges from zero to 255. Each number is an octet (each octet is of 8 bit) and that is why maximum range of each number is 255. Since each Number is an octet and there are 4 numbers in IPv4 address so IPv4 Address is a 32 bit Address Example of IPv4 Address: 10.8.12.9 Every device like computer, printer or router is assigned with IPv4 Address in order to uniquely identify in the network.IPv4 address divided in to two…